Philosophy Unit 1 Aqa Essay

Reason and Experience

Knowledge... Do we seriously know it?

Key Terms:

Term | What It Means... | Examples

Concept/Idea | A thought or perhaps notion that cannot be the case or fake | The almighty, Dog, Evil | Idea | An argument which is either right/wrong | " Goodness is pink” | Expertise | Stated in propositions that are formed by signing up for concepts, state something that applies or fake | " The dog is usually Yellow” | Three Types of Knowledge | - Propositional- " Understand that” - Knowledge simply by Acquaintance -- " Know of” -- capacity/Ability -- " Find out how” | | Von vornherein | Propositional knowledge that we know is right before (sense) knowledge | " 2+2=4 " | Posteriormente | Propositional knowledge that we realize is right only after (sense) experience | " The sky is usually blue” | Synthetic | Not true by simply definition – Tells us a thing substantial regarding the world | " Snow is white” | Inductive | Authentic by description | " All Bachelors are single men” | Necessary | Had to be authentic, true in every possible realms | Maths – 2+2=4 | Conditional | Could possibly be otherwise | " Obama was selected President” | Induction | Reasoning that draws results from a finite assortment of specific observations. | 1). The sun features always grown 2). The sunlight will always climb | Discount | Thinking in which the summary must follow the premises | 1). Person is persona 2). Socrates is guy 3). Socrates is fatidico | Natural | Reassurance that is present in the mind when they are born | Conceptual Schemes - Kant | Intuitive | propositions that individuals know happen to be right through genuine thought | " I do think therefore I exist” - Descartes | Empiricism | Argues that you can only have analytic dialectic knowledge | " Most Widows had been once Married” (Analytic a priori) | Rationalism | Argues that you may have analytic and man-made a priori expertise (Not Plato) | " God Exists” - Descartes (Synthetic a priori)

All Suggestions Come From Knowledge: Empiricism

Steve Locke | David Hume

The mind is known as a Tabula Rasa – Blank Slate Discomfort + Expression Simple, intricate, and abstract ideas Straightforward ideas come from sensation Intricate + Abstract come from reflection | Discomfort creates impressions in our heads Ideas are 'faint impressions' of sensations that are 'vivid and forceful' Almost all thoughts will be combinations of ideas elizabeth. g. Gold Mountain

Counter Disputes:

Only some simple ideas come from encounter Missing shade of green - Hume | Complex/Abstract ideas are not really from experience general thought is required to make up the abstract thought - Curruthers | Some ideas are innate Ideas of God/Infinity – Descartes Veined Marble – Leibniz Almost all knowledge is innate inside the soul, merely needs to be recalled - Bandeja

Know-how about what is out there must be validated by impression experience: Ruben Lock | 2 Fountains of Knowledge – Sensation & Reflection All ideas are coming from these – So almost all propositions must be as well | BUT | David Hume | Hume's Fork Contact of Tips – Analytic a priori understanding Matters of Fact – Synthetic posteriormente knowledge Whatever is 'Empty Metaphysical Speculation” and should end up being 'cast to the flames' electronic. g. The almighty | Hume's Fork on its own is 'empty metaphysical speculation' – contradicts itself | Alfred Jules Ayer | Verification Principle Analytic or perhaps Empirically Qualified (can always be proven by simply experience) Whatever else is useless e. g. Infinity | | John Stewart Mill | Zero a priori know-how All understanding is a posteriori and discovered through debut ? initiation ? inauguration ? introduction, including reasoning and mathematics | What about a fortiori a priori expertise? " A bachelor is definitely not married”

Strengths:

Sets crystal clear limits about appropriate things of knowledge –...

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