Office of Economics
Napier College or university
NO . thirty-three
Defining Entrepreneurship – Effects for ICT, Social Enterprise and Regional and Local Creation Policies.
Ronald W. McQuaid
Department of Economics
NO . 33
Defining Entrepreneurship – Implications for ICT, Social Enterprise and Regional and Local Development Procedures.
Ronald W. McQuaid
( Ronald McQuaid
Series Publisher: Dr Ronald McQuaid
ISBN 1 873869 33 being unfaithful
Department of Economics
Edinburgh EH11 4BN
FAX 0131 447 3475
Many national, regional or local agencies have created policies to immediately support internet marketers so as to increase the number of businesses or aid the competition and development of existing small companies. This Operating paper thinks what is designed by the term entrepreneurship as well as the implications of such meanings for different policies in promoting entrepreneurship, including social entrepreneurship. These include mostly macro-level guidelines such as monetary stability, taxation and polices, together with regional and local policies focusing after advice, schooling, finance, technology transfer, markets access, physical infrastructure as well as the characteristics in the locality. 1 . Introduction
Entrepreneurship has been for ages been given the role in employment creation and economical development around the globe. For instance, the European Percentage Erikki Liikanen declared it happened in 1999 that the Eu needs to produce an ‘enterprise culture' as " entrepreneurship is at the top of the open public policy plan because there are very clear indications which a country's gumptiouspioneering, up-and-coming activity is linked to its economic wealth. ” Similarly in the UK the Chancellor with the Exchequer (1999) stated which the strategy from the government can be promoting economical stability, building a modern skill base, modernisation of work, capital and product markets with " the confidence of development and an enterprising tradition open to all”. Indeed a serious part of the Department of Operate and Industry's White Daily news on Competition (DTI, 1998) and OECD (1998) evaluations focus upon the need for fresh policies to promote enterprise plus the knowledge economic system.
In recent years greater attention is given to knowledge based businesses, often incorporating entrepreneurship and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) improvements, leading to look at the growth with the ‘knowledge' or ‘new' economic climate. For instance, the OECD (1997a) argued that the rise of intangible purchase is just taking care of of the broader move of advanced financial systems towards " knowledge-based economies” - financial systems which are straight based on the availability, distribution and use of understanding and info, in which ICT developments play a crucial function. The Western european Commission (2000) launched a " New Method for Jobs in the Knowledge Economy” in promoting employment and skills inside the " knowledge economy” and also to improve a connection to the internet and the use of information and communications technology. This can be based upon the estimate that by 2010 half of all jobs will probably be in companies that are either major producers or intensive users details technology products. Its insurance plan suggestions clearly link these types of developments to the encouragement of entrepreneurship in new solutions and businesses, particularly through fiscal policies rewarding risk taking (such as inventory options). Countrywide governments have shown substantial interest ‘capturing' in the potential economic affects of ICT and e-commerce for the benefit of their financial systems (e. g. Central Workplace of Information, 1998; Performance and Innovation Product, 1999). There are numerous overlapping companies and principles covered by the word ICT industrial sectors, such as knowledge,...
References: Acs, Z. M. and M. B. Audretsch (1988) ‘Innovation in Large and Little Firms: An Empirical Analysis', American Economic Review 78, 687-90.
Acs, Z. M., Morck, L. and W. Yeung (1999) " Production Growth and Firm Size Distribution” in Acs, Z .. J., Carlsson, B. and C. Larlsson (eds. ) (1999) Entrepreneurship, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Macroeconomy, Cambridge, CUP.
Baumol, W. T. (1987) ‘Entrepreneurship in Monetary Theory', American Economic Assessment (Papers and Proceedings) fifty eight, 64-71.
Birley, S. and P. Westhead (1993) ‘A comparison of online businesses established by ‘novice' and ‘habitual' founders in Great Britain', International Small company Journal doze, 38-60.
Bygrave, W. Deb. (1989) ‘The entrepreneurship paradigm (I): A philosophical look at its research methodologies', Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 7-26.
Campagni R. P. (1995) The Concept of Ground breaking Milieu and its relevance to get public Procedures in Western Lagging Parts, Papers in Regional Scientific research, 74, 317-340.
CEC (Commission of the Euro Communities) (1995) The Western european Employment Strategy: Recent Progress and Prospective customers for the Future, COM (95) 465 Final, Luxembourg, OOPEC.
CEC (1998) Fostering Entrepreneurship in Europe: Focus for the Future, COM (198) 222 Final, The duchy of luxembourg, OOPEC.
CEC (1999) Guide to Territorial Work Pacts 2000-2006, Commission personnel working doc SEC(99) 1933, CEC, Brussels.
CEC (2000) Strategy for Job in the Knowledge Economic climate, IP/00/119, CEC, Brussels.
Casson, M. (1990) Entrepreneurship, Aldershot, Edward Elgar.
Central Workplace of Information (1998) Our Info Age: the Government's Eye-sight, London, CALME.
Chancellor from the Exchequer stated (1998) Conversation to the UK-US Enterprise Meeting, July 1999, London, HM Treasury.
Division of Trade and Industry (DTI) (1995) Small Firms in The united kingdom 1995, London, uk, HMSO.
Office of Operate and Market (1998) Each of our Competitive Future: Building the information Driven Economic climate, Cmnd 4176, London, HMSO.
Drucker P. F. (1985) Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Greater london, Heinemann.
Drucker P. N. (1992) Managing for the Future, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann.
ENSR (1997) The European Observatory for SMEs, 5th Report, Brussels, Euro Network intended for SME Research.
Florida, R. (1995) ‘Toward the Learning Regions', Futures 27, 527-536.
Gartner, W. W. (1988) ‘Who is a business owner? is the incorrect question, ' Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 12, 47-67.
Glancey, T. S. and R. T. McQuaid (2000) Entrepreneurial Economics, Basingstoke, Macmillan and Nyc, St . Martin's Press.
Corridor, P., Breheny, M., McQuaid, R. Watts., and Deb. Hart (1987) Western Sunrise: Britain's High-Tech Corridor, Greater london, Routledge.
Haughton, G. (ed. ) (1999) Community Monetary Development, London, uk, Stationery Workplace.
Hayton, T., Turok, I actually., Gordon, J., and T. Gray (1993) Community Organization in Ireland Centre intended for Planning, University or college of Strathclyde.
Hisrich, 3rd there�s r. D. and M. L. Peters (1998) Entrepreneurship, next edition, New york city, Irwin/McGraw-Hill.
Kanter, R. Meters. (1995) First class: Thriving In your area in the Global Economy, London, Simon and Schuster.
Kirzner, I. Meters. (1973) Competition and Entrepreneurship, Chicago, University of Chi town Press.
Kirzner, I. M. (1997) ‘Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive marketplace process: an Austrian approach', Journal of Economic Books 35, 60-85.
Kuratko, Deb. F, Hornsby, J. H. and Deb. W. Naffziger (1997) ‘An examination of owners' goals in sustaining entrepreneurship', Journal of Small Business Administration 35, 525-30.
LAURA (1990) Community Businesses, Good Practice in Urban Regeneration, London, HMSO.
Leadbeater, C. (1997) The Rise of the Social Business owner, London, Demonstrations.
Markusen, A., Hall, S., and A. Glasmeier (1986) High tech America: the what, how and why of the sunrise sectors, Boston, Allen and Unwin.
McQuaid, R. W. (1996) ‘Social Systems, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development', in M. Danson (ed. ), Tiny Firm Creation and Local Economic Advancement, 118-131, Greater london, Routledge.
OECD (1997a) New Directions for Industrial Coverage, Policy Short No . several. Paris, Company for Monetary Co-operation and Development.
OECD (1997b) The World in 2020: A new Global Age, Paris, france, OECD.
OECD (1998) Cultivating Entrepreneurship: A Thematic Review, Paris, OECD.
Osborne, Deb. and T. Gaebler (1992) Reinventing Government, Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley.
Oswald, A. T. and M. G. Blanchflower (1998) The particular an entrepreneur? Journal of Labor Economics 16, 26-60.
Functionality and Innovation Unit (1999) [email protected] greatest. uk, London, uk, PIU.
Reynolds, P. M. (1991) ‘Sociology and entrepreneurship: Concepts and contributions', Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice14, 47-70.
Richardson R, Gillespie A (1996) Advanced communications and employment creation in countryside and peripheral regions: an instance study with the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. Life of Local Science 31, 91-110
Johnson, P. M., Stimpson, D. V., Huefner, J. C
Schumpeter, L. A. (1943) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, London, Allen and Unwin.
Smallbone G. (1992) ‘Targeting established SMEs: Does Era Matter', Intercontinental Small Business Diary 13, pp. 47-64.
Stevenson, H. They would. and W. A. Sahlman (1989) ‘The entrepreneurial process', in Can burn, P. and J. Dewhurst (eds. ) Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 94-157, Basingstoke, Macmillan.
Schumpeter, J. A. (1976) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, 5th copy, London, George Allen and Unwin.
Storey, D. T. (1994) Comprehending the Small Business Sector, London, Routledge.
US Dept of Trade (1999) ‘The Emerging Digital Economy II', Washington, POWER, US Dept of Trade, http://www.ecommerce.gov/ede/ede2.pdf
Youthful, D. (1983) If Not for Profit, so that? A Behavioural Theory in the Non-profit Sector and Based on Entrepreneurship, Lexington, Mass., Lexington.